NerdGuy #35 – Doomsday Planes
Nightwatch – NOT the original Doomsday Plane
The E-4B Nightwatch featured in Miranda Chase #12 was NOT the only Doomsday Plane lofted by the US military. There is a long history that is actually rather interesting. A fan (thanks Gaylord) reminded me of this when he told me about his experience as a kid on a class field trip to Ouffut Air Force Base in the 1970s to actually tour the Looking Glass plane.
“Looking Glass” will be a familiar name to fans of 1970s war movies, from Dr. Strangelove and Fail-Safe (which were mandatory viewing in our high school) to 1983’s War Games or Countdown to Looking Glass (1984), (though I haven’t seen that one yet). It is the plane that was always aloft to provide a secure command-and-control center in case of nuclear attack. Well, the plane wasn’t a work of fiction. There have been three aircraft commonly called Doomsday planes.
Doomsday Plane #1 – EC-135 “Looking Glass”
This is actually a very interesting plane. The EC-135 was designated by Boeing internally as the 717 (not to be confused with the commercial Boeing 717 that first flew in 1998). Slightly smaller than the 707, it was introduced in 1956 and first used as the KC-135 Stratotanker for mid-air refueling. Five of these were refitted in 1961 to make EC-135A planes until at least 11 more could be outfitted from scratch for the Looking Glass role. They were flown by Strategic Air Command (SAC).
Looking Glass aircraft were continuously aloft (as in at least one plane airborne 24 hours/day) from 1961 – 1990 (after the 1989 fall of the Berlin Wall, and shortly before the 1991 collapse of the USSR). After that, they remained on continuous ground or airborne alert until 1998. They always flew with a US general on-board to provide continuity of government and on-going existence of the USA. He flew with the full authority to launch and target the US’s nuclear arsenal in case of attack.
This partial standing-down, remaining on ready-alert rather than aloft, is due to the increasing capabilities of satellites. But they too are vulnerable and these “Doomsday” planes are kept at the ready.
Doomsday Plane #2 – E-6B “Mercury”
“Looking Glass” isn’t actually the name of the airplane, it’s the name of the mission. In 1998, that mission was handed over to the US Navy who still runs it today. They’re still flying Boeing 707s, some of the very last off the production line which was closed in 1991. It flies with a general officer or admiral on board, with the same mission, command and control of the US nuclear arsenal in case of attack.
Doomsday Plane #3 – E-4B “Nightwatch”
These 4 Boeing 747-200s entered service in 1974 with a slightly different mandate, but still definitely class as Doomsday planes. An extremely capable aircraft, it too can conduct command-and-control operations throughout the US military, including direct communication with deeply submerged submarines (which is much harder than it sounds, perhaps another NerdGuy).
The Nightwatch planes are the Air Force One for the Chiefs of Staff and the Secretary of Defense when they go traveling. These are the military destroyers to the Air Force One luxury yacht. One of these is always parked within 100 miles of the President when he travels overseas in case of emergencies (a fact I used in Miranda Chase #8, White Top). They used to keep one permanently near the President, but these planes are so old that they’ve restricted their usage somewhat to preserve them. It’s only in 2022 that Congress finally authorized the budget to begin the replacement process of these 50-year-old aircraft.
But don’t underestimate their capabilities based on age. The internal electronics are continuously upgraded and fortified against almost every eventuality short of a direct hit. On 9/11, when all non-military planes had been grounded, spotters saw a 747 circling high over Washington, DC. It was an E-4B Nightwatch providing surveillance security to the nation’s capital.
Do I feel safer that they exist, or horrified that there is a need (perceived or imagined) for such aircraft to remain in our arsenal? That’s a question I leave for you to decide. (Click HERE to buy Nightwatch now.)